In the ongoing battle against cancer, compromised immunity continues to hinder the effectiveness of current pharmacological interventions. While innovative treatments like nano-formulations and targeted immunotherapy show promise, their clinical efficacy remains uncertain and their affordability is a concern for patients in low-income settings. Recognizing the potential of natural remedies, this 2022 research paper explores the immunomodulatory properties of mushrooms, traditionally revered for their anti-cancer activity, offering insights into their molecular mechanisms and potential as cost-effective, multitarget therapies for cancer patients.

Mushrooms, valued for their nutritional richness and diverse bioactive compounds, have long served as both sustenance and traditional medicine. With their array of vitamins, phenolic compounds, and fatty acids, mushrooms possess a spectrum of health benefits, including potential anti-cancer properties. As global cancer rates continue to escalate, there is a pressing need for novel therapeutic approaches, prompting an exploration into the anti-cancer potential of mushroom extracts. Our study seeks to fill this gap by conducting a comprehensive meta-analysis of existing literature, aiming to identify and evaluate promising anti-tumor agents derived from mushrooms, thus contributing to the ongoing quest for effective cancer treatments.

This review delves into the potent antitumor properties of mushroom polysaccharides, particularly focusing on (1→3)-β-D-glucans, shedding light on their mechanisms of action and immunomodulatory effects. By stimulating T cells and other immune cells, these polysaccharides orchestrate a cascade of cellular responses, including cytokine expression and nitric oxide production, ultimately contributing to their tumor-inhibitory effects. Through summarizing existing research and envisioning future directions, this review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of mushroom polysaccharides' potential as promising therapeutic agents in cancer treatment.